Sep 4, 2010

8 Indonesian Volcano in the World known for gigantic eruption

Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) presented by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self of the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide relative measurement of the magnitude of volcanic eruptions.

8. Kelud (VEI = 4)

Since the late 15th century, Mount Kelut has claimed more than 15,000 people. The explosion was in the year 1586 claiming more than 10,000 inhabitants. A system to divert the lava flow have been made extensively in 1926 and still functioning until now after the eruption in 1919 claimed thousands of lives due to cold lava flood swept settlements.

In the 20th century, carrying Kelud erupted in 1901, 1919 (May 1), 1951, 1966, and 1990. Year 2007 was again increased the activity of the mountain. This pattern brings experts in cycle 15 volcanic eruptions yearly.

7. Mount Merapi (VEI = 4)

Mount Merapi is the youngest in a collection of volcanoes in southern Java. The mountain is located in a subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian plate continues to move down the Eurasian Plate. The eruption in the area lasted from 400,000 years ago, and up to 10,000 years ago type of eruption is effusive. After that, the eruptions become explosive, with lava flows that cause thick lava domes.
Small eruptions occur every 2-3 years, and a larger approximately 10-15 years. Merapi eruptions such a big impact in the years 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, and 1930. Large eruption in 1006 made the whole middle part of Java island shrouded in gray. It is estimated, the eruption caused the ancient Mataram kingdom had to move to East Java. Eruption in 1930 destroyed 13 villages and killed 1400 people.

6. Galunggung (VEI = 5)

Galunggung ever recorded erupted in 1882 (VEI = 5). Early signs of eruption known in July 1822, in which water becomes turbid and muddy Cikunir. Inspection results showed that the water turbid crater is hot and sometimes appear in the column of smoke from the crater. Then on October 8 s.d. October 12, the eruption of reddish sand produces a very rainy summer, fine ash, hot clouds and lava. Lava flow moving toward the southeast to follow the river flows. This eruption killed 4011 people and destroyed 114 villages, with land damage to the east and south as far as 40 km from the summit of the mountain.

5. Gunung Agung (VEI = 5)

Gunung Agung last erupted in 1963-64 and is still active, with a large and very deep crater which occasionally smoke and ash. From afar, the mountain looks a cone, although in it there is a large crater.
From the top of the mountain, it is possible to see the summit of Mount Rinjani on Lombok island, although both mountains are often covered by cloud.
On February 18, 1963, local residents heard a loud explosion and saw a cloud rising from the crater of Mount Agung. On February 24, lava began flowing down the northern slopes of the mountain, eventually traveling seven miles in 20 days. On March 17, the volcano erupted, sending debris 80-10 km into the air and produced huge pyroclastic flows. This current is much destroying villages, killing around 1500 people. A second eruption on May 16 causing the flow of heat clouds that killed 200 other people.

4. Krakatau (VEI = 6)

Krakatoa is a volcanic archipelago that are still active and located in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra islands. This name was ever pinned on a volcanic peak there (Mount Krakatoa) eruption itself is gone because on 26-27 August 1883. The eruption was so powerful; hot clouds and the resulting tsunami killed an estimated 36 000 inhabitants. Until before the date of December 26, 2004, this tsunami is that terdahsyat in the Indian Ocean region. The voice sounded until the eruption was in Alice Springs, Australia and the island of Rodrigues near Africa, 4653 miles. Yield is estimated at 30,000 times the atomic bombs that detonated on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
The eruption of Krakatoa caused global climate change. The world had darkened over the past two and a half days due to volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere. The sun was shining dim until next year. Scattering of dust visible in the sky Norway to New York.
Krakatoa explosion was actually still less than the eruption of Mount Toba and Tambora volcano in Indonesia, Mount Tanpo in New Zealand and Mt Katmal in Alaska. However, these mountains erupted deep in the human population is still very small. Meanwhile, when the volcano Krakatoa erupted, the human population is dense enough, science and technology has evolved, the telegraph was invented, and the submarine cable has been installed. Thus we can say that moment of information technology is growing and growing rapidly.
Noted that the eruption of Krakatoa was the first major disaster in the world after the discovery of submarine telegraph. The progress is, unfortunately, has not been matched by progress in the field of geology. The geologist was not even able to give an explanation of these eruptions.

3. Maninjau (VEI = 7)

Maninjau caldera formed by volcanic eruptions is estimated to occur around 52 000 years ago. Deposits of the eruption have been found in radial distribution around Maninjau extending up 50 kilometers to the east, 75 km to the southeast, and west to the coast. Deposits are expected to be distributed more than 8500 km ² and has a volume of 220-250 km ³. This caldera has a length of 20 km and width of 8 km.

2. Mount Tambora (VEI = 7)

Volcanic activity of the volcano Tambora in April 1815 when it erupted in the scale of seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. The eruption is the biggest eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in the year 181. The explosion was heard on Sumatra island (more than 2000 km). Volcanic ash fall in Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku. The explosion caused the death to not less than 71 000 people with 11000-12000 of whom were killed in direct consequence of these eruptions. Even some researchers estimate that up to 92 000 people were killed, but this figure is questionable because it is based on estimates that are too high. Moreover, the eruptions cause climate change the world. One the following year (1816), often referred to as the Year Without a Summer because the weather changes drastically from North America and Europe due to dust generated from this Tambora eruption. Due to this drastic change in climate that many crops failed and livestock died in the Northern Hemisphere that caused the worst famine in the 19th century.

During an archaeological excavation in 2004, a team culture that archaeologists found the remains buried by the eruption in 1815 at a depth of three meters in pyroclastic deposits. Artifacts were found in the same position when the eruption occurred in 1815. Because of similar characteristics that is, the findings are often referred to as the Pompeii of the east.

1. Toba Supervolcano (VEI = 8)

Volcanic eruptions are the most severe ever known on planet Earth. And nearly destroy generations of mankind on planet Earth.
73 000 years ago Supervolcano eruption of Indonesia's nearly destroyed all of mankind. Only a few survivors. And after the Tsunami Volcano In Indonesia became active once again and threatens humanity.
This eruption can not be compared with anything that has been experienced on earth since the time when humans could walk upright. Compared with the supervolcano Toba, Krakatau even causing ten of thousands of casualties in 1883 is just a small burp.
Whereas Krakatau has explosive power equivalent to 150 megatons of TNT. For comparison: Hiroshima Bomb explosions have only 0.015 megatons of explosive power, and hence its demise orally 10 000 times weaker than Krakatoa.
As has been known to scientists, toba almost annihilate mankind 73.00 years ago. At the time Neanderthal man inhabited the earth along with homo sapiens we are in europe, and homo erectus and Homo floresiensis in asia. When it is very cold in europe, the last Ice age is running smoothly, where deer, wild horses and giant deer are hunted. Besides food herbivores, hairy mammoths and rhinos are also often the human diet when Toba, with a diameter of 90 kilometers on the island now known by the name of Sumatra. Exploded in the strict sense.
Along with the huge tsunami waves, there are 2800 cubic kilometers of ash that was issued, which spread throughout our planet's atmosphere. Which may have reduced human population to only around 5000 to just 10 000 people.
Actually people nowadays come from a few thousand human survivors of a super volcano Toba eruption 73 000 years ago
Therefore volcanoes in Indonesia responsible for the almost extinction of mankind. And from 60 to 70 volcanoes which can be found in the area (Indonesia) now. Some of them became active again in a few months or several weeks after the earthquake on the seabed in december 2004.
Toba Although it is still far away and safe sleeping under a big sea that bears the same name in North Sumatra. many people are afraid if one day in the Gutter active volcanoes located 300 kilometers south of the Toba eruption, can wake a sleeping giant..
Prof. Vulkanologis. Ray Cas said 'It's possible, but if only Toba ready to explode and the incident above is not the only indication of the incident. "
The experts are thinking that maybe someday another big eruption will occur but it will probably happen around 10,000 or even 100,000 years longer. but no matter what, not all things can be predicted.

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